The time series data contain a sequence of data collected at discrete and equally spaced intervals of time (daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, annually, etc.). The time period and the length of the equally spaced time interval can be short or long. During measurement of the epidemic spread of disease, cross-sectional data analyses are also highly important.

example of cross sectional data

“This is superb and brilliant. Prof. Agung has skilfully transformed his best experiences into new knowledge … creating a new way of understanding data analysis.” A practical guide to selecting and applying the most appropriate model for analysis of cross section data using EViews. To ensure that the study objectives can be addressed satisfactorily, an appropriate sampling frame must be chosen . The choice of sampling frame will depend on how generalisable the results need to be, and on resources available to conduct the study (i.e. staff and money). Suppose we have data on the return to holding stock in a company for the past 100 months.

Panel data and longitudinal data have both time-series and cross-sectional aspect. Save taxes with ClearTax by investing in tax saving mutual funds online. Our experts suggest the best funds and you can get high returns by investing directly or through SIP. Just upload your form 16, claim your deductions and get your acknowledgment number online. You can efile income tax return on your income from salary, house property, capital gains, business & profession and income from other sources. Further you can also file TDS returns, generate Form-16, use our Tax Calculator software, claim HRA, check refund status and generate rent receipts for Income Tax Filing.


This book addresses this issue by providing a hands-on practical guide to conducting data analysis using EViews combined with a variety of illustrative models . Models having numerically dependent variables based on a cross-section data set (such as univariate, multivariate and nonlinear models as well as non-parametric regressions) are concentrated on. It is shown that a wide variety of hypotheses can easily be tested using EViews. When the sampling frame and time period of recruitment have been determined, the process for selecting the participants, how this could be done, and who will administer the questionnaires or face-to-face interviews are decided.

During this Gross domestic product measurement, there is the counting based on the total population of the country in a particular time such as a particular year like 2019, 2018, or others. Through the cross, sectional statistics peoples can analyze the relationship among different variables related to the population such as morbidity, mortality, and total population, its enhancement rate, and recession rate along with many others. Longitudinal data, also called panel data, is a series of repetitive observations of the same topics, collected over a period of time from a larger population and is useful to quantify change. Longitudinal data varies from cross-sectional data, since it tracks the same subjects over a period of time, whereas cross-sectional data samples different subjects at every point of time.

The likelihood of conducting a study which requires the above numbers will also be dependent on the group that is being studied. For example, if you wish to study the general population, then this could relatively easily be carried out in one city. However, if you wanted to study student nurses, then you would have to include nearly all of the departments of nursing in the UK. Cross-sectional knowledge, or a cross part of a research population, in statistics and econometrics is a sort of one- dimensional knowledge set. Cross-sectional knowledge refers to data collected by observing many subjects (corresponding to individuals, companies or international locations/regions) at the similar point of time, or without regard to variations in time.

The committee is formed to select 5 people from the nominated persons in such a way that atleast 3 men are there in the final team. ∴ The share price of 5 companies on a particular day is a cross – sectional data. The candidates who have taken the exam can check their APSET results following the process mentioned here.

example of cross sectional data

Bar chart showing the reported current use of recreational drugs among male and female VDPs separately. Current user is defined as someone who has taken cannabis more than once/twice, or uses it at least once per week, or uses any other drug at least once per month. Discussion and motivation of population correlation given in Chapter 3 along with technical details. We do not know exactly what these will be, so cannot calculate sample means and variances as we did above.

It is called cross-sectional because here huge numbers of objectives or units like firms, countries, or others are studies at a particular time. It is clear that one of the major problems to be addressed in longitudinal studies is attrition. The most cost-effective way of conducting a longitudinal study is to keep the initial sample size as small as possible and then to maintain a high proportion of that sample for the duration of the study.

Answer (Detailed Solution Below)

Time series information are a perception of information that are gathered at explicit time frames. Subsequently, time-series information might be arranged into hourly, everyday, month to month, quarterly, half yearly, and yearly. The thought is to check the comparability and contrasts of information recorded at various time spans. SSC CGL 2022 Tier I Prelims Exam Date Out on the official website of SSC on 31st October 2022! Earlier,SSC CGL Results for Tier II 2021 Marks Status Link has been activated.

  • Cross-sectional data utilization is also highly important for preparing a financial datasheet of the country.
  • The candidates are advised to go through the list of APSET Books and select their sources wisely.
  • Each knowledge point is for a selected particular person or household, and the regression is performed on a statistical sample drawn at one cut-off date from the complete population of individuals or families.
  • Bar chart showing the reported current use of recreational drugs among male and female VDPs separately.
  • The results might then be used to explain findings from other studies, or help to design further studies.

The following sections illustrate some of the issues considered when developing questionnaires , for the four example studies used in this chapter. Define important terms, even if in common use (e.g. a unit of alcohol consumption or current smoker). The questions example of cross sectional data have been used before, perhaps in other questionnaires, and so have already been tested and validated (i.e. they measure what they are supposed to measure). Responses to a question consist of tick boxes covering several options instead of free text fields.

3 Measuring variables, exposures, and outcome measures

The Andhra University conducts the exam on behalf of the government of Andhra Pradesh. The Andhra Pradesh State Eligibility Test is a state-level based entrance test that is conducted every year. The candidates are advised to go through the list of APSET Books and select their sources wisely. In this rapidly changing world, if you have to keep pace, it’s time to learn cross-section data statistics. In the microeconomic study, there is a great importance of cross-sectional data sets to analyze the present and future aspects of the labor market. Cross-sectional data utilization is also highly important for preparing a financial datasheet of the country.

example of cross sectional data

Unlike case-management studies, they can be utilized to describe, not only the percentages ratio, but in addition absolute dangers and relative risks from prevalences . They could also be used to explain some feature of the inhabitants, similar to prevalence of an sickness, however can not show cause and impact. Longitudinal research differ from each in making a collection of observations more than as soon as on members of the examine inhabitants over a period of time. Analyzing longitudinal knowledge poses considerable challenges to statisticians and other quantitative methodologists due to a number of distinctive options inherent in such knowledge. First, essentially the most troublesome characteristic of longitudinal analysis is the presence of lacking data in repeated measurements. During measurement of the GDP of the country, it needs cross-sectional data analyses.

What is cross sectional design in research methods?

Cross-sectional analysis is a comparison of a particular metric of one company with the corresponding metric of another company within the same industry, or against the industry in which it operates in. Consequently, three types of observations had been then deleted from the sample. First, observations occurring after departure had been eliminated as the scholar was not in danger to drop out of the establishment once more. Additionally, two classes of observations had been excluded due to right censoring. Investigators can collect data in a variety of ways, depending on the study objectives and resources available (Box 1.9).

In this era, a financial analysis is done for comparing the financial situation or datasheets of two different companies. A cross-sectional data analysis provides a clear view of the position of two companies at a specific time of year. In statistics or econometrics-based studies, there is a huge study of populations in a specific time. Here data are collected through observing a huge number of objects such as firms, countries, races, populations, and others.

The evaluation begins with the institution of analysis objectives and the definition of the variables that an analyst needs to measure. Each knowledge point is for a selected particular person or household, and the regression is performed on a statistical sample drawn at one cut-off date from the complete population of individuals or families. I’d add that there is additionally a kind of knowledge that’s in between cross-sectional data and panel knowledge. For instance, annual labour pressure surveys are repeated cross-sections, because every year, a new random sample is taken from the population. In a hypothetical example of a cross-sectional study, we can record the prevalence of periodontal disease and investigate the association between periodontal disease and oral hygiene habits in adult patients. The outcome is the presence or absence of periodontal disease, and the exposure is current oral hygiene practices such as frequency of brushing and use of dental floss.

What is Longitudinal Data?

For example, annual earnings growth and annual revenue growth for a company over a period of five years. Since it has many advantages over repetitive cross-sectional data, longitudinal data is usually used in financial and economic studies. For example, since longitudinal data tracks how long things last, it can be used to see if the same group of people remain unemployed during a recession, or if different people move in and out of unemployment. This may help to determine the factors that affect unemployment the most. Cross-sectional data are observations that come from different individuals or groups at a single point in time.